Some of us get confused about Cinema, Drama and Film. Some says they are the same, some says they are not. Well, movie means  moving pictures, film consists of pictures in a frame and it’s visible only for forty eight of a second and Cinema means the place and the technique. The place where we watch the movie or film and the technique of making a movie.

Cinema has an Elements, these are time, space, cutting, camera movement and sound.

The time is the most important element of cinema. It has three aspects of time which are physical ,  psychological and dramatic time.

Physical time is the time taken by an action as it is being filmed and as it is being projected on a screen, second is the psychological time is our emotional expression of the duration of the action that we experience as we watch a film

Third is the dramatic time, it refers to the time taken up by the events which are depicted in the film.

The second element is the space, our experience of space in reality is very different from our experience of space in cinema, we can move about in the physical space that surrounds us, but space on the screen is flat and our perception of depth is just an illusion.

The cinema lens captures the images we see on the screen, the three dimensionality and realness of the objects are achieved through the use of scale, shooting angle, lightning.

Scale refers to the size of objects on the screen and their relation to the surrounding are, our perception of the size of objects on film is artificial and very much unlike our everyday experiences, Another way in which the screen and camera can deceive us about size of the objects is through the location of the camera in relation to the subject, The different sizes of shots may be taken by long shots, medium shots and close up.

Lightning is another mean use to give the illusion or depth in the film, last is the shooting Angle, angles are varied to allow the director to show his concept of the object or the character in the film. Shooting angle can express subjectively what things are like as they are seen from the point of view of a character, The director may take picture from several angle: Vertically upwards, vertically downwards and horizontally.


The third element is cutting. The director only gets the important scene that will make the events inevitable, consists of joining one shot in a scene to a shot of another both having a logical connections.

The fourth element is the camera movement, a change of view maybe made by continuous  movement of the camera while shooting instead of switching from one shot to another, It helps us experience the gradual growth pictures of a scene, a tracking shot is taken.

Last is the Sound, a film need not record all these sounds to project its own reality on the screen.


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